Primary energy consumption grew at a rate of 2.9% last year, almost double its 10-year average of 1.5% per year, and the fastest since 2010.
By fuel, energy consumption growth was driven by natural gas, which contributed more than 40% of the increase. All fuels grew faster than their 10-year averages, apart from renewables, although renewables still accounted for the second largest increment to energy growth.
China, the US and India together accounted for more than two thirds of the global increase in energy demand, with US consumption expanding at its fastest rate for 30 years.
Carbon emissions grew by 2.0%, the fastest growth for seven years.
The annual average oil price (Dated Brent) rose to $71.31 per barrel, up from $54.19/barrel in 2017.
Oil consumption grew by an above-average 1.4 million barrels per day (b/d), or 1.5%. China (680,000 b/d) and the US (500,000 b/d) were the largest contributors to growth.
Global oil production rose by 2.2 million b/d, or 2.4%. Almost all of the net increase was accounted for by the US, with their growth in production (2.2 million b/d) a record for any country in any year. Elsewhere, production growth in Canada (410,000 b/d) and Saudi Arabia (390,000 b/d) was outweighed by declines in Venezuela (-580,000 b/d) and Iran (-310,000 b/d).
Refinery throughput rose by 960,000 b/d, down from 1.5 million b/d in 2017. Nevertheless, average refinery utilization climbed to its highest level since 2007.
Natural gas consumption rose by 195 billion cubic metres (bcm), or 5.3%, one of the fastest rates of growth since 1984.
Growth in gas consumption was driven mainly by the US (78 bcm), supported by China (43 bcm), Russia (23 bcm) and Iran (16 Bcm).
Global natural gas production increased by 190 bcm, or 5.2%. Almost half of this came from the US (86 bcm), which (as with oil production) recorded the largest annual growth seen by any country in history. Russia (34 bcm), Iran (19 bcm) and Australia (17 bcm) were the next largest contributions to growth.
Growth in inter-regional natural gas trade was 39 bcm or 4.3%, more than double the 10-year average, driven largely by continuing rapid expansion in liquefied natural gas (LNG).
LNG supply growth came mainly from Australia (15 bcm), the US (11 bcm) and Russia (9 bcm). China accounted for around half of the increase in imports (21 bcm).